Section 5

5.1       Fundamentals

5.2       Distinctive Typefaces and Font Attributes

5.3       When Print Font Attributes May Be Ignored

5.4       Retaining Font Attributes

5.5       Color, Highlighting, and Other Print Fonts

5.6       Font Emphasis for One or More Paragraphs

5.7       Emphasized Letters within a Word

5.8       Multiple Emphasis in Exercise Material

5.9       Words Enclosed in Shapes

5.10     Samples

5.1     Fundamentals

Font attributes are unique characteristics of a print font, e.g., italics, bold, red, highlighting, etc.

A variety of visual techniques are used to attract a reader's attention, including the use of font attributes. Teachers may reference these; consequently it is becoming more important to follow print for educational content.
Retain all font attributes that add meaning to the text and may be referenced by the teacher, another reader, or elsewhere in the book or corresponding workbook/handbook. If it is determined that the emphasis should be retained, follow print.
Omitting attributes entirely may limit the ability of the reader to find necessary information. For example, if a statement is made that all prefixes and suffixes are bold and then the bold is omitted, the student will not be able to identify independently what is or is not a prefix or suffix.
Print Font Attributes
UEB defines symbols for italics, bold, underlining, and script. There are also five transcriber-defined typeform indicators to be used for other print font attributes. Each typeform indicator requires the addition of a symbol, word, or passage indicator. Passage indicators require the use of a typeform terminator. (See Formats, Appendix G, for a list of these symbols and UEB, §9, Typeforms.)
It is not always necessary to indicate a "double" font attribute, such as bold italics or bold highlighting. The primary attribute, such as italics or highlighting, is often sufficient. The transcriber needs to decide if the double attribute is necessary while structuring the braille edition.
A Braille Reader's Perspective. Typeform indicators in braille do not emphasize, i.e., they do not draw our attention to material. They simply indicate that the print shows emphasis. That is why we do not emphasize material in braille that is emphasized for decorative purposes. We also do not emphasize material such as a heading, when format serves the purpose of emphasis to the braille reader.

We use braille typeform indicators for two main reasons:

a.  To show the braille reader a situation in which emphasis is used in print. Foreign words are sometimes emphasized for this reason, as well as paragraph headings.

b.  To give the braille reader an accurate rendition of the print text in situations where the type of print emphasis (e.g., color, italics, bold, underlining, script, etc.) might be mentioned by the print reader. For example, a teacher might mention a blue box or a word in bold.

5.2     Distinctive Typefaces and Font Attributes

Distinctive typefaces include facsimiles of handwriting and hand printing, or any font other than the primary one used in the text. Some font attributes seen frequently in educational material are italics, boldface, small capitals (print capitals the height of lowercase letters), underlining (single and multiple), color, highlighting, etc.

a.  If the use of small capitals is determined to be a required print font, use a transcriber-defined typeform indicator to indicate the small capitals (Example: horse). If the small capitals do not need to be distinguished in some way, the word(s) may be fully capitalized in braille. Note: Use a capital indicator before the first letter of a word printed in small capitals when the initial letter of the word is shown in larger font (Example: Horse).

b.  Roman numerals and similar material in small capitals should be transcribed using an initial capital or the capitalized word indicator (fully capitalized).

c.  Uppercase is not a font attribute. Follow print for capitalization.

5.3     When Print Font Attributes May Be Ignored

Print font attributes may be ignored when they are used for decorative purposes and do not add information for the reader. In general, font attributes in tables of contents, headings (centered, cell-5, cell-7), dedications, titles, lists, etc., do not reinforce learning or have any additional value for the reader. When these items are partially emphasized, however, font attributes must be retained.
Ignore font attributes used for letters that mean letters and are shown standing alone, with or without punctuation. Note this change on the Transcriber's Notes page.

Example 5-1: Italicized Single Letters

Italicized single letters in sentence

,! spell+ h9t 8i 2f ;e1 except af ;c0
isn't v help;l1 2c "! >e _m excep;ns4
Ignore font attributes used with word parts standing alone, e.g., prefixes, suffixes, and identified root words. Note this change on the Transcriber's Notes page.

Example 5-2: Prefix and Suffix with Font Attributes

List with bold prefix (with hyphen), italicized suffix (no hyphen), and regular font suffix (with hyphen)

Ignore font attributes used with parts-of-speech abbreviations (with or without punctuation), e.g., v. or v for verb, n. or n for noun, m. or m for masculine, f. or f for feminine in dictionaries and glossaries. Note this change on the Transcriber's Notes page.

Example 5-3: Part-of-Speech Abbreviation

Part-of-speech label v. is italicized

a3use "<uh-,,kuz"> ;v4 blame
Ignore font attributes for titles of books, poems, plays, etc., that appear as a complete heading. Note: Font attributes are retained when titles of books, poems, plays, etc., are mentioned in the text.

Example 5-4: Ignore Font Attribute for Title

Italicized title

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,eyes & ,te>s
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,&rew ,,m>vell
,h[ wisely ,nature did decree1
Ignore font attributes when they are used as a simple visual enhancement for print layout, e.g., a heavier font used for instructions, italics used for a dedication, etc.

Example 5-5: Bold Ignored (Print Only)

Example of bold instructions before a list of activities

Example 5-6: Italics Ignored (Print Only)

Conclusion at end of chapter is italicized
Ignore font attributes when an entire vocabulary or spelling words list is emphasized.

Example 5-7: Italics Ignored for Spelling Words

Italicized spelling words

⠀⠀⠀⠀,,spell+ ,,^ws
#a4 fr⠀friend
#b4 v⠀very
#c4 p⠀people
#d4 busy
Ignore font attributes for scene settings and stage directions in plays or dialogue.

Example 5-8: Font Attributes Ignored in Plays

Play with emphasized character names and stage directions

^1,katie "<amus$">4 ,bill1 t ma*9e 0
⠀⠀made by ,japanese te*nicians :o ?9k (
⠀⠀ne> "ey?+4 ,x'll run on xs [n4
^1,bill4 ,y1h1 b x's be5 a l;g "t 444
^1,katie4 ,okay4444
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀"<,%e />ts \1444 !n turns 9 !
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀doorway z "s?+ else /rikes h]4">
Ignore font attributes for numbers/letters beginning exercise material, alphabetic divisions, etc.

Example 5-9: Font Attribute Ignored for Bold Numbers

Bold sentence numbers

⠀⠀⠀⠀,:at ,y ,w ,4cov]
#a4 ,did yr spid] w1ve a web8
#b4 ,:at "t ( "d did yr spid] />t to
⠀⠀w1ve xs web8
#c4 ,did yr spid] build j "o web8

Ignore font attributes used to indicate quoted material enclosed in quotation marks. Note: There may be situations when it is better to retain emphasis for the quoted text, and it is the transcriber's responsibility to evaluate each situation for readability and clarity. (See Sample 5-2: Ignoring Font Attributes in Quoted Matter on page 5-15.)
Ignore font attributes for entry words in alphabetic references, unless required for distinction, e.g., book titles, foreign words, etc.

Example 5-10: Italics Retained for Distinctive Entry Words

Glossary with bold entry words

,gift tax ,a tax on a gift by a liv+
⠀⠀p]son4 ;p4 #dea
.1,glasno/ ,! ,soviet policy ( op5;s "u
⠀⠀: tol].e ( 4s5t & fre$om ( expres.n
⠀⠀9cr1s$4 ;p4 #fdf

5.4     Retaining Font Attributes

Follow print for the meaningful use of italics, bold, color, etc., as they may be part of classroom discussion. For example, a teacher may tell students that all blue words will be on a test. Indicating color in braille lets the student study independently.
Follow print when a title is printed in italics or other emphasizing typeface and follows a preposition that is in a different typeface, or when the preposition is in a typeface different from the title.

Example 5-11: Retain Font Attribute for Title

Italicized title, preceded by From in regular font

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,eyes & ,te>s
.7,&rew ,m>vell ,revisit$.'
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀by ,?omas ,:eel]
,h[ wisely ,nature did decree1

Example 5-12: Retain Font Attribute for Preposition

Italicized from at beginning of regular font title

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,:at ,makes ,a ,w9n]
.1f ,s1biscuit3
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,an ,am]ican ,leg5d
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,biography by ,laura ,hill5br&
,quiet trepida;n settl$ ov] 444
Follow print for font attributes used to identify glossary words throughout the text.

Example 5-13: Glossary Words

Sentence with bold glossary word (feminization of poverty)

⠀⠀,sociologi/s ref] to ? tr5d z !
^7fem9iza;n ( pov]ty^' "<.7,! ,/ate (
,am]ica's ,*n1.' #aiih">4

5.5     Color, Highlighting, and Other Print Fonts

The print font for italics, bold type, underlining, and script are represented by specific braille symbols. Other print fonts (e.g., color, double underlining, etc.) are represented in braille using transcriber-defined font indicators. See Formats, Appendix G, for a list of these symbols and UEB §9.5: Transcriber-Defined Typeform Indicators.
Transcriber-defined indicators are used in order: use the first transcriber-defined symbol for the first undefined print font, then the second transcriber-defined symbol, and so on. Be consistent within a transcription regarding the usage of these indicators. If all transcriber-defined indicators are used, other typeform indicators may be used for color or highlighting (if they are not already used within the volume).
The transcriber-defined indicator(s) and termination indicator(s) are listed on the Special Symbols page, or in a transcriber's note before the text. Sample:

Symbols used in this volume:

.=`#7 Double underline passage indicator
.=`#' Double underline terminator
.=^#1 Yellow highlighted word indicator

Example 5-14: Use of Transcriber-Defined Indicators

Sample sentence with 3 double underlined words with one of the words italicized; 1 highlighted word

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀`.<,symbols us$ 2l3
.=`#7 ,d|ble "ul9e passage 9dicator
.=`#' ,d|ble "ul9e t]m9ator
.=^#1 ,yell{ hi<li<t$ ^w 9dicator`.>
#a4 ,use a plural v]b ) subjects jo9$ by
⠀⠀,my s*ool's `#7or*e/ra .1& b&`#'
⠀⠀⠀⠀^#1h di6]5t 9/ru;ts4

5.6     Font Emphasis for One or More Paragraphs

Insert the appropriate font passage indicator at the beginning of each paragraph.
Insert the passage terminator at the end of the final paragraph. (See UEB §9.9.1, Typeform Passages Extending Across Consecutive Same Text Elements.)

5.7     Emphasized Letters within a Word

Letters within words are emphasized for a variety of reasons, e.g., to show changes in spelling, additions of prefixes or suffixes, and alliteration. When letters are emphasized with any font attribute (e.g., italics, bold, colored type, underlined letters, etc.):

a.  Follow print for the emphasis used.

b.  Use contracted braille for all words with emphasized letters. If the emphasis applies to the initial letter of a contraction, the contraction can still be used.

c.  Use the typeform word indicator when the emphasis applies to more than one symbol. If the emphasis occurs within a word and a return to regular type is required, use a terminator to show the return to regular print font.

Example 5-15: Emphasized Letters within a Word

1st sentence: Initial s is underlined in 4 words. 2nd sentence: sh is underlined in 3 words

_2,%e _2sells _2s1%ells by ! _2s1%ore4
_1,%_'e sells sea_1%_'ells by !

5.8     Multiple Emphasis in Exercise Material

Exercise Material. The use of multiple font attributes in quick succession may hinder readability for some students. Transcribers must use their best judgment when opting to show the attributes used in text. It may be beneficial to transcribe a sentence first without the typeform indicators, then repeat the sentence with all the indicators. Explain this technique on the Transcriber's Notes page or in a transcriber's note before the exercise. Symbols used should be listed on the Special Symbols page or in a transcriber's note at the site. Sample:

Each sentence is shown first without emphasis and then repeated with all indicators used.

Example 5-16: Repeated Sentences

Two sentences with red, blue, and underlined words

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀`.<,ea* s5t;e is %{n f/ )\t
⠀⠀⠀⠀emphasis & !n rep1t$ ) all 9dicators
#a4 ,x is sn[+ \tside4 ,! /reet is wet4
⠀⠀#a4 ,x
`#1is _1sn[+ \tside4 ,! /reet
^#1is wet4
#b4 ,i h b"\ new boots4 ,!y h woolly
⠀⠀#b4 ,i
`#1h _1b"\ new boots4 ,!y ^#1h
⠀⠀⠀⠀woolly l9+s4

5.9     Words Enclosed in Shapes

Words may be enclosed in a variety of shapes. Use a transcriber-defined typeform indicator to represent this in braille. (See UEB §9.5, Transcriber-Defined Typeform Indicators.)
A transcriber's note and/or a list of special symbols explains this usage. Sample:

In the sentences below, some words are enclosed in a rectangle or an oval. When multiple words are within one shape, a passage indicator rather than a word indicator is used. Symbols used:

.=`#7 Words enclosed in a rectangle
.=`#' Rectangle terminator
.=^#1 Word enclosed in an oval

Example 5-17: Use of Typeform Indicators to Show Words in Shapes

Sentence with text in a rectangle (very hot) and text in an oval (summer)

⠀⠀⠀⠀5clos$ 9 a rectangle or an oval4 ,:5
⠀⠀⠀⠀multiple ^ws >e )9 "o %ape1 a
⠀⠀⠀⠀passage 9dicator r ?an a ^w 9dicator
⠀⠀⠀⠀is us$4 ,symbols us$3
.=`#7 ,^ws 5clos$ 9 a rectangle
.=`#' ,rectangle t}m9ator
.=^#1 ,^w 5clos$ 9 an oval`.>
,bo/on c 2
`#7v hot`#' dur+ ! ^#1summ]

5.10   Samples

Sample 5-1: Underlined Text

Text with single and double underlining

 1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀`.<,symbols us$3
.=_1 ,"ul9$ ^w 9dicator
.=`#1 ,d\ble "ul9e`.>
⠀⠀⠀⠀,on ,yr ,[n
⠀⠀⠀⠀#ae-#dj4 ,write ! tw5ty-six
⠀⠀⠀⠀preposi;nal phrases 9 ? "p ( an
⠀⠀⠀⠀5cyclop$ia 5try4 ,"ul9e ea*
⠀⠀⠀⠀preposi;n once & xs object twice4
,cultur$ pe>ls c 2 f.d 9 a v>iety (
⠀⠀_19 a `#1v>iety2 _1( `#1colors

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Sample 5-2: Ignoring Font Attribute in Quoted Matter

Quote set off  by change of margins, italics, and quotation marks

 7 ⠀⠀,columbus sail$ f ,spa9 on ,augu/ #c1
#adib4 ,on ,octob] #ab he si<t$ l&1 an
isl& 9 :at is n[ call$ ! ^1,we/
^1,9dies4 ,ab two weeks lat] he si<t$
:at he ?"\ 0 ,japan1 al call$ ,zipangu
at t "t4
⠀⠀8,all my globes & _w maps seem to
⠀⠀9dicate t ! isl& ( ,japan is 9 ?
⠀⠀vic9;y & ,i am sure t ,cuba & ,zipangu
⠀⠀>e "o40
,by #aejd ,columbus _h complet$ ?ree m

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Sample 5-3: Use of Color as Emphasis

Paragraph with each sentence in a colored font

 1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀`.<,symbols us$ 2l3            #,-
.=`#7 ,blue passage 9dicator
.=`#' ,blue t}m9ator
.=^#7 ,gre5 passage 9dicator
.=^#' ,gre5 t}m9ator
.=_#7 ,orange passage 9dicator
.=_#' ,orange t}m9ator
.="#7 ,p9k passage 9dicator
.="#' ,p9k t}m9ator
.=.#7 ,purple passage 9dicator
.=.#' ,purple t}m9ator
.=`7 ,violet passage 9dicator
.=`' ,violet t}m9ator`.>
⠀⠀⠀⠀,mat* ! colors = facts1 r1sons1
⠀⠀⠀⠀examples1 & explana;ns to see h[
⠀⠀⠀⠀details >e >rang$ 9 ! p>agraph 2l4
⠀⠀`#7,ye/]"d \r class _h a special
visitor4`#' ^#7,8 "n is ,*>les ,hoov]4
,he 0 born 9 #aibe1 & he is #he ye>s
old4^#' _#7,he came to expla9 :at life 0
l "h 9 ,montgom]y1 ,alabama1 m ?an #hj
ye>s ago4_#' .#7,he talk$ ab         #,-

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