Section 16

16.1     Fundamentals
16.2     Reference Marks
16.3     Reference Indicators and Construction Pattern
16.4     Notes
16.5     Miscellaneous Notes Issues
16.6     Notes in Tables and Columned Material
16.7     Endnotes
16.8     Heavily Annotated Materials
16.9     Keying Technique for Marginal Labels
16.10   Samples

16.1       Fundamentals

16.1.1     All types of notes are simply called notes in this section. Notes give the reader additional information, e.g., the pronunciation of a word, a translation of a foreign word, etc.

Note: There are unique situations for specific types of notes, such as tables. See the content list above.

16.1.2     For the purposes of these guidelines, a print reference mark is defined as any superscript number, letter, or character used to indicate that there is an additional note to the matter that is being discussed.

16.1.3     Examples of Reference Indicators

77a  asterisk

77_b blue

77b  bold

77d  dagger

77dd double dagger

77h  highlight

77o  hollow dot

77i  italic

77l    line-numbered

77q  question mark

77u  underline

77;a lettered

77#a numbered

16.1.4     The print explanatory notes may be located:

a.  At the foot of the page.

b.  In the margin.

c.  Between lines of narrative text.

d.  In columns facing the narrative text.

e.  On a page facing the narrative text.

f.  Immediately above or below columned or tabular material.

g.  In a note section, either at the end of each chapter or at the back of the book.

h.  Online, with a URL provided in print. In this case, the URL is transcribed, but the transcriber is not responsible for putting the actual notes in the braille edition.

16.1.5     Corresponding braille notes may be located:

a.  At the end of the print page, separated from text by a separation line.

b.  Before tabular material.

c.  At the end of the chapter or volume.

d.  In a separate volume for heavily-annotated text.

16.1.6     Special Symbols and Transcriber's Notes

Special Symbols

Transcriber's Notes

16.1.7     A Braille Reader's Perspective

Providing a braille format for notes is difficult because two things are required. Notes must be easy to find when necessary, but also easy to skip for uninterrupted reading.

Using one symbol 77 (2356, 2356) as the base for all reference indicators is helpful because it immediately identifies it as a note, and lets the reader decide whether to keep reading, or find the note at the end of the print page.

16.2       Reference Marks

16.2.1     Usually a reference mark is printed in the text after the word(s) to be explained (word1, worda, word* or word). The reference mark then is repeated before the word at the beginning of the note (1note, anote, *note or note).

16.2.2     Braille reference indicators are preceded and followed by a space and must appear on the same braille line as the word (or last word) referenced.

a.  The reference indicator is transcribed as shown in print, either before or after the word or phrase being referenced.

Exception: A reference indicator followed by punctuation is transcribed after the punctuation mark.

b.  Omit punctuation that is part of a reference indicator, e.g., 1. in sequentially numbered or lettered notes.

c.  All reference indicators used, along with the print symbols they represent, are listed on the Special Symbols page.

16.3       Reference Indicators and Construction Pattern

16.3.1     The foundation pattern for reference indicators is 77 (2356, 2356). This is called the base reference indicator.

a.  The base reference indicator is used by itself when only one reference mark symbol, e.g., a hollow dot, asterisk, etc., is used in the entire print book.

77 (2356, 2356)

b.  A letter, without a letter indicator, follows the base reference indicator to identify a symbol, such as a hollow dot.


c.  A letter, preceded by a letter indicator, follows the base reference indicator for lettered reference marks.


d.  A number, preceded by a number indicator, follows the base reference indicator for numbered reference marks.


e.  Add the letter l and the line number(s) to the base reference indicator for all notes in line-numbered material.


f.  The base reference indicator is used by itself for notes without a reference mark or font attribute.

77 (2356, 2356)

g.  Other reference indicators may be devised as needed, by adding an appropriate letter(s) to the base reference indicator.


16.3.2     The following samples demonstrate the construction of indicators when print uses more than one reference mark. The construction of the marks must remain consistent throughout the entire book.

Example 16-1: Book with One Reference Mark

Asterisk reference indicator after Hamlet in first example and before Othello in second example

,hamlet 77
77 ,o!llo

Example 16-2: Hollow Dot Reference Mark Before Punctuation

Hollow dot reference indicator before closing parenthesis in first example, and before period in second example

7craft7 77o
craft4 77o

Example 16-3: Dagger Reference Mark with a Dash

Dagger reference indicator between word and dash

,n[ is ! "t = all brave m5 6fly⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
6,m>s-- 77d !n -e home4

Example 16-4: Numbered and Lettered Notes

Superscript numbered note indicator after first word; superscript lettered indicator after last word

script 77#a or libretto 77;a

See Sample 16-1: Multiple Reference Marks on page 16-17.

16.3.3     Line-Numbered Notes. Always include the line-numbered reference indicator as part of the reference indicator in line-numbered material.

Example 16-5: Line-Numbered Note

Line number (175) is indicated at the right margin of the third print line; note for word in line 173 is in note section

,hamlet3 ,excell5t well2 y >e a
⠀⠀⠀⠀fi%m;g]4 77l#agc
,polonius3 ,n ,i1 my "l4
,hamlet3 ,!n ,i wd y 7 s h"o/ a     #age

16.3.4     Notes with Reference Marks in Line-Numbered Material. The line number is always included, even when there are other reference marks which are retained. The appropriate reference indicator is inserted before the line number indicator.

Example 16-6: Underlined Notes in Line-Numbered Material

Line number (170) is indicated at the right margin of the third print line; an underlined word is in line 168

,telema*us' _- fr5zy ,' 77ul#afh
⠀⠀/ruck "s"o z funny1
& soon ! :ole room ro>$ ) lau<t]
⠀⠀at hm1
s t all t5.n pass$4 '''             #agj

16.3.5     Notes without a Reference Mark

a.  Some notes may appear in the margin, alongside the referenced text, without using font attributes or a print mark.

b.  The reference indicator is inserted at the end of the print line if the exact point of the reference within the text cannot be determined.

c.  The base reference indicator 77 (2356, 2356) is used for unmarked notes.

Note: Do not confuse marginal notes with sidebars. See Section 12, Sidebars.

Example 16-7: Note without a Reference Mark

Marginal note without a reference mark

,t float+ /uff is call$ slag4 77 ,! slag
is !n skimm$ (f4

16.4       Notes

16.4.1     Notes are placed at the end of the print page.

a.  Notes are separated from text by a note separation line "333333 (5, 25, 25, 25, 25, 25, 25) across seven cells. The separation line cannot be on the last line of the braille page.

b.  Insert a blank line before a note separation line only when the blank line is required by other formats, such as the end of a list.

c.  Notes are listed in the order in which they appear in the text. They are not grouped by symbol or font attribute type.

d.  Notes may be separated by a title/heading or a blank line when there are multiple titles with separate note references on one print page.

e.  Do not insert a blank line between a note separation line and title/headings.

See Sample 16-2: Notes Separated with Headings starting on page 16-18.

f.  Notes are listed in 1-3, preceded by the same reference indicator used at the reference point. Additional paragraphs in a note are in 5-3.

g.  The entire width of the braille line is used for notes.

h.  Font attributes are retained, unless all notes using the same reference indicator are entirely emphasized. Do not retain font attributes for line numbers.

i.   To reinforce a change in context, insert a blank line before the page change indicator when the text after the page change indicator begins in the same cell as note runovers.

j.  Notes in tables are discussed in §16.6.

Example 16-8: Note Placement

Paragraph with dagger reference indicator; note located at end of print page, with the referenced phrase indicated with bold and followed by a colon

⠀⠀8,i "k--t's :at ,i'm say+--! old
/ories ab ! ka'ts9a _s 77d & ,yell[
,woman c't m1n u40
77d _.ka'ts9a _._s3 ,a m.ta9 _s (!
⠀⠀,laguna ,pueblo ,9dians4




See Sample 16-3: Sequentially-Numbered Notes on page 16-20.

See Sample 16-4: Devised Reference Indicator on page 16-21.

Example 16-9: Note with Range of Line Numbers

Line number (165) is indicated at the left margin of the second print line; note for lines 164-166 is at the right margin

,juliet4 ,n pr\d y h1 b ?ank;l t
⠀⠀⠀⠀y h4
⠀⠀,pr\d c ,i n"e 2 ( :at ,i hate1   #afe
⠀⠀,b ?ank;l ev5 = hate t is m1nt
⠀⠀⠀⠀love4 77l#afd-aff
77l#afd-aff ,i'm n pl1s$1 b ,i am
⠀⠀grate;l = yr 9t5;ns4

16.4.2     Do not include a highlighting color in a reference indicator unless it is necessary to distinguish between two colors.

Example 16-10: Highlighted Note Reference

A yellow highlighted word begins a paragraph; a note to that word is in the note section at the end of the print page, with the referenced word indicated in bold and followed by a colon

_yh ,predaci\s1 ,' 77h fi]ce1 secretive1
maje/ic1 & ev5 wise >e adjectives t
describe ! [l4
77h _.predaci\s3 "*i/ic (a pr$ator

16.5       Miscellaneous Notes Issues

16.5.1     Several marked or unmarked reference points on the same line are treated as separate references.

See Sample 16-5: Two Marked Notes on an Unnumbered Print Line on page 16-22.

Example 16-11: Two Unmarked Notes on a Numbered Print Line

Line number (15) is indicated at the right margin of the second print line; no reference indicators appear in the paragraph; two notes for line 14 are at the end of the print page

,brutus3 ,romans1 77l#ad             #ad
⠀⠀c.trym51 77l#ad & lov]s6 ,he> me
⠀⠀= my⠀⠀⠀cause1 & 2 sil5t1 t y may   #ae
⠀⠀he>3 2lieve me4
77l#ad ,romans3 citiz5s ( ,rome
77l#ad c.trym53 ,italians

16.5.2     Each reference mark used at the same reference point is transcribed as a separate indicator. Follow print order of these reference marks.

Example 16-12: Two Indicators at Same Reference Point

A dagger and double dagger reference indicators appear after the same word; notes with each indicator are at the right margin, with the referenced word indicated in italics and followed by a colon

,! seme/] 0 2g9n+ )a flurry (
activities4 ,all ! /ud5ts 7 preo3upi$ )!
details (! syllabus 77d 77dd t 0
4sem9at$ 0! professor at ! op5+ class4
77d .syllabus3 !⠀subject /udi$ =a
⠀⠀"picul> c\rse
77dd .syllabus3 a summ>y \tl9e (a c\rse
⠀⠀( /udy

16.5.3     Notes with Pronunciation. Do not add a second uncontracted spelling for words with pronunciation.

Example 16-13: Note with Pronunciation

A word is underlined in a paragraph; a note to that word is in the note section at the end of the print page, with the referenced word indicated in bold, and followed by pronunciation in parentheses

⠀⠀,! build+ _h a fe/ive air on ! \tside
t 3tra/$ ) xs 9n] _- /aid;s4 ,' 77u ,ll
0ll1 ,juan 0 absorb$ 0his job1 & he felt
at p1ce s9ce he 0 do+ "ey?+ he cd 6get 8
lr = ,m>iana4
77u _./aid;s 7/st_ad3n^is7 n4 a quiet1
⠀⠀(t5 /rait-lac$ dign;y

16.5.4     Notes Containing Displayed Quoted Material. When a note contains quoted matter set off from the body of the note by blank lines, quotation marks, change of margins, or font attributes, use the listed format of 1-3 for the note, and use the guidelines found in Section 9, Displayed Material Attributions, and Source Information.

See Sample 16-6: Note with a Quote on page 16-23.

16.5.5     Notes Referring to Notes on a Different Page or in a Different Volume. When a note references a note located in a different volume, the referenced note is repeated after the original note. Multiple-referenced notes are transcribed in the order mentioned in the original note.

a.  The note on the current page is in 1-5 or 1-7, depending on the number of references included in the note. Use a nested list format if more than two additional levels of references are included. The nested list format for notes is used only on these pages, and notes on all other pages are listed in 1-3.

b.  The note referencing the first note is in 3-5 or 3-7, depending on the number of notes.

c.  A note referencing the second note is in 5-7.

d.  Include both page location information and reference indicators, when given.

Note: Do not repeat a referenced note in a volume of endnotes, where notes are transcribed exactly as written.

See Sample 16-7: Repeated Note on page 16-24.

16.5.6     Notes Continued on Additional Print Pages. A note divided between print pages is completed on the braille page on which it begins, before the print page change indicator. When the continuation of a note is the only material on the following print page, the page change indicator follows the note and combined page numbers are used for the print page with text.

See Sample 16-8: Continued Note on Next Print Page starting on page 16-26.

16.5.7     Notes on Facing Pages. Use combined print page numbers when transcribing text and notes printed on facing pages. Lettered continuation pages require the combined print page numbers.

See Sample 16-9: Notes on Facing Page on page 16-28.

a.  An agency may request that notes be provided in a separate volume(s) when a book has text and notes on facing pages. In this situation, use combined page numbers in both volumes of text and notes. Indicate that the notes are in a separate volume on the Transcriber's Notes page. Sample:

The text and the notes to the text are in separate volumes.

b.  The following is an example of the volume and page numbering for the individual volumes. The text is in the first volume, with notes in the following volume.

Volume 3

Braille pages t1-t5 and 1-67

Print pages 45-a70


Volume 4

Braille pages t1-t5 and 1-55

Print pages 45-a70

16.6       Notes in Tables and Columned Material

16.6.1     Notes in Table Format

a.  Notes are placed before the table as, in most situations, they need to be read before reading the table to understand the entries in the table.

b.  Insert a transcriber's note before the table. Sample:

Note(s) in the table below.

c.  Do not include the note(s) within the transcriber's note.

d.  Notes begin on the next line after the transcriber's note.

e.  All notes are in 7-5.

f.  Each note begins with the appropriate reference indicator, and is followed by the note on the same line.

g.  Do not leave blank lines between notes.

h.  Other transcriber's notes follow the reference note(s).

See Sample 16-10: Note in Column Entry on page 16-29.

16.6.2     Notes in Alternate Table Formats. Notes in listed, linear, and stairstep tables are inserted within the table.

a.  All notes are in 7-5.

b.  Do not leave a blank line between notes.

c.  Listed format: The note is inserted on the next line after the completion of the cell entry.

d.  Linear format: The note is inserted on the next line after the completion of the entire row.

e.  Stairstep format: The note is inserted on the next line after the completion of the cell entry.

f.  A reference indicator may be included in a keyed transcriber's note. The note is inserted after the completion of the transcriber's note.

See Sample 16-11: Notes in a Listed Table starting on page 16-30.

16.7       Endnotes

16.7.1     Notes may be combined in a special section at the end of a chapter or at the end of a book. Usually endnote sections use consecutive superscript numbers within the chapter and do not use font attributes.

16.7.2     General Provisions for Endnote Sections

a.  Follow print for the placement of endnote sections at the end of each chapter.

b.  Endnotes at the end of a book generally are divided and placed at the end of the volume in which the references appear.

c.  Extensive endnote sections may be placed in a separate volume. This transposition of endnotes must be mentioned on the Transcriber's Notes page in each volume. Sample:

The endnotes to the text are in a separate volume.

Example 16-14: Extensive Notes in a Separate Volume (Print)

Two long numbered notes in paragraph form (print only)

16.7.3     Format of Endnotes

a.  An endnote section begins on a new braille page.

b.  Insert NOTES on line one (line three if a running head is used) if the text does not include a heading at the beginning of the note section.

c.  Leave a blank line before inserting a transcriber's note. Sample:

Note references are listed in the following order: print page number, reference indicator.

Exception: This transcriber's note is omitted when the endnotes are printed without print reference marks.

d.  Each endnote is listed in 1-3, beginning with the print page number (without continuation indicator) and reference indicator.

e.  The print page number precedes each endnote when more than one note refers to the same print page.

f.  Lists of abbreviations for book/magazine titles referred to in the endnotes are repeated before the note section in each volume. The abbreviations are listed in 1-3, with print followed for punctuation, capitalization, and font attributes. Follow print also for the capitalization and use of font attributes for the abbreviations within the endnote.

Example 16-15: List of Note Abbreviations (Print)

Two headings (NOTES, Abbreviations) followed by a list of abbreviations and their meanings (print only)

See Sample 16-12: Endnotes starting on page 16-32.

16.7.4     Endnote Sections without Reference Marks. If the endnote section shows only print page numbers and/or print line numbers, and there are no print reference marks in the body of the text:

a.  Each endnote is preceded by a print page number. Line-numbered material includes the line number as well as the print page number.

b.  Do not insert a reference indicator within the text.

c.  Do not include braille line numbers in the note section.

16.8       Heavily Annotated Materials

16.8.1     Extensive notes can interrupt the flow of reading. The requesting agency may choose to:

a.  Create an endnote section at the end of a volume.

b.  Move the notes to a separate volume, retaining print page numbers.

16.9       Keying Technique for Marginal Labels

16.9.1     Labels printed in the margin can be intrusive in braille and great care needs to be taken to not interrupt the flow of text any more than necessary. List the labels in a key before the text.

a.  The complete key is enclosed in a transcriber's note.

b.  A blank line precedes and follows the list of keyed items.

c.  The key is listed in 1-3, following the order in which the labels occur in the accompanying text, unless a different order is more appropriate.

d.  Assign an appropriate letter or number combination to each label.

e.  Each alphabetically-labeled key is preceded by the unspaced base reference indicator 77 (2356, 2356). The label identification follows on the same line.

f.  When text has both numbered notes and a numerically-labeled key, each numerically-labeled key is preceded by the unspaced base reference indicator and k 77k to avoid confusion with numbered notes. The label identification follows on the same line.

g.  The closing transcriber's note indicator follows the last item in the list.

h.  In the text, insert the label followed by a space before the appropriate passage. A spaced termination indicator follows the completion of the labeled passage. Explain this usage in a transcriber's note. Sample:

Labels beside each card are keyed. The keyed label is inserted before the beginning of the text. A spaced termination indicator (6, 3) follows the completion of the keyed section within text.

Key to labels:

77ti Title
77au Author (last name first)
77yb Year of birth
77dp Date of publication
77pu Publishers

i.   When one label applies to a segment of text within which there are shorter texts requiring other labels, it is necessary to indicate clearly when the first label ends. Use an embedded transcriber's note at the end of the initial label segment.

See Sample 16-13: Marginal Labels starting on page 16-34.

See Sample 16-14: Labeled Letter starting on page 16-36.

16.10     Samples

Sample 16-1: Multiple Reference Marks, page 16-17

Sample 16-2: Notes Separated with Headings, page 16-18

Sample 16-3: Sequentially-Numbered Notes, page 16-20

Sample 16-4: Devised Reference Indicator, page 16-21

Sample 16-5: Two Marked Notes on an Unnumbered Print Line, page 16-22

Sample 16-6: Note with a Quote, page 16-23

Sample 16-7: Repeated Note, page 16-24

Sample 16-8: Continued Note on Next Print Page, page 16-26

Sample 16-9: Notes on Facing Page, page 16-28

Sample 16-10: Note in Column Entry, page 16-29

Sample 16-11: Notes in a Listed Table, page 16-30

Sample 16-12: Endnotes, page 16-32

Sample 16-13: Marginal Labels, page 16-34

Sample 16-14: Labeled Letter, page 16-36