Section 9
Displayed Material,
Attributions, and Source Information

9.1    Fundamentals
9.2    Format for Displayed Material
9.3    Epigraphs
9.4    Attributions
9.5    Source Citations and Permission to Copy
9.6    Cross-References and Incidental Notes
9.7    Correspondence and Diary Entries
9.8    Samples

9.1         Fundamentals

9.1.1       Displayed material appears within the flow of regular text and is set off from the body of the text by blank lines, change of margins, or emphasis. Pull quotes, material restated from the body of the text, which are typically larger and use a distinctive font attribute, are not repeated.

Example 9-1: Displayed Material (Print)

Displayed paragraph with an indented left margin, and extra space before and after the paragraph (print only)

Example 9-2: Pull Quote (Print)

Page shows pull quote and the same text within a paragraph in the next column (print only)

9.1.2       For formatting purposes lists, boxed material, and tables are not considered "displayed material." See Section 7, Boxed Material; Section 8, Lists; and Section 11, Tables and Related Columns.

Note: Text "displayed" in the margin is considered a sidebar. See Section 12, Sidebars.

9.1.3       A Braille Reader's Perspective

When doing a finger scan down the left margin, remember that the blank lines before and after the text signal to the reader that the material is set apart from the surrounding text.

9.2         Format for Displayed Material

9.2.1       Transcription of displayed material needs to maintain the difference shown in print between the regular text and the displayed text.

9.2.2       Cell 3 is used as the adjusted left margin for most displayed material. To accommodate various print formats, it may be necessary to change this left margin for some types of displayed material. The goal is to provide clarity and readability while reinforcing the distinction from the surrounding text.

a.  Displayed material is preceded and followed by a blank line.

b.  Do not insert blank lines between individual items in displayed material unless required by other formats.

c.  Headings. Cell-5 and cell-7 headings are based on the adjusted left margin. Consequently cell-5 headings are blocked in 7-7, and cell-7 headings are blocked in 9-9. Centered headings remain based on the non-adjusted left margin, i.e., the full width of the line. However, there must be at least three blank cells between the adjusted left margin and the centered heading.

d.  Blocked paragraphs are in 3-3; indented paragraphs are in 5-3.

e.  Multiple displayed sentences are treated as a list in 3-5.

f.  The adjusted left margin for displayed material in exercises is cell 5, with indented paragraphs in 7-5.

Example 9-3: Displayed Single Sentence

Displayed single sentence between two paragraphs, set off by a change in margin, and extra space before and after the paragraph

,9 ! ?ird p]son1 ! correct =m is
.doesn't1 :e!r ! subject is s+ul> or '''
⠀⠀,ca?y 7doesn't1 don't7 l movies ) sad
,! correct =m is .doesn't3 ,ca?y
.doesn't l movies ) sad 5d+s4

Example 9-4: Displayed Multiple Sentences

Paragraph followed by two displayed sentences


⠀⠀⠀⠀,respectively & ,respect;lly
.,respectively m1ns 8sep>ately0 or '''
⠀⠀,! "picipants 9 ! debate 7 ,/4 ,lawr;e
⠀⠀⠀⠀,hi< ,s*ool & ,delphi ,hi< ,s*ool1
⠀⠀,! /ud5ts .respect;lly /at$ _! >gu;ts4

g.  In displayed material, the first level in a nested list format begins in cell 3 with the appropriate runover two cells to the right of the farthest indented subentry.

One level: 3-5

Two levels: 3-7, 5-7

Three levels: 3-9, 5-9, 7-9


h.  Displayed material may be relocated to the end of a paragraph when it interferes with the flow of text.

See Sample 9-1: Displayed Quote on page 9-11.

9.2.3       Font Attributes in Displayed Material

a.  Retain font attributes when individual words or phrases are emphasized.

b.  Omit font attributes when the entire section of displayed material is emphasized.

See Sample 9-2: Italicized Displayed Verse on page 9-12.

9.2.4       Format for Displayed Short Word Lists. Horizontal word lists across the print page must fit on a single braille line, with each word separated by two blank cells.

Example 9-5: Displayed Horizontal Word List

A displayed three word horizontal list, set off by a change in margin, and space before and after the list

⠀⠀,suppose y >e ask$ 6>range ! foll[+
^ws 96a s5t;e4
⠀⠀,"! is m ?an "o s5t;e t c 2 made f ^!

9.2.5       Format for Displayed Long Word Lists

a.  Word lists that do not fit on a single braille line are changed to columns, listing the words from left to right.

b.  Leave two blank cells between the end of one column and the beginning of the next column.

c.  Do not use guide dots between unrelated columns. See Section 11, Tables and Related Columns.

d.  Word lists with phrases are listed vertically.

See Sample 9-3: Displayed Word List in Columns on page 9-13.

See Sample 9-4: Displayed Vertical List on page 9-14.

9.3         Epigraphs

9.3.1       An epigraph is a short introduction, often a quotation, at the beginning of a poem, short story, book chapter, or other piece of literature. The epigraph introduces or refers to the larger themes of the piece.

a.  Epigraphs at the beginning of the body matter are text pages, not front matter.

b.  Epigraphs are transcribed according to their formats, i.e., a poem in poetry format, an indented paragraph in 3-1, etc.

c.  The epigraph is preceded and followed by a blank line.

d.  Omit font attributes unless needed for distinction.

See Sample 9-5: Epigraph on page 9-15.

9.4         Attributions

9.4.1       An attribution is the identification of the source or author of material, and often appears after the completion of the quote, poem, story, etc.

a.  An attribution cannot start on a new braille page. It must begin on the same page as the previous line.

b.  Attributions are blocked in the fifth cell to the right of the beginning of the previous line.

c.  Retain font attributes for titles or other text requiring distinction.

d.  A blank line always follows an attribution.

See Sample 9-6: Attribution on page 9-16.

9.5         Source Citations and Permission to Copy

9.5.1       Source citations provide information about the origin of the material. They appear in a number of locations on the print page, e.g., at the bottom of the page, after a table or chart, etc.

a.  Source citations are in 7-5, inserted at the most appropriate location.

b.  Source citations and permission-to-copy notes are transcribed in reading order.

c.  Do not insert a blank line before a source citation or permission to copy.

d.  A blank line always follows a source citation or permission to copy.

9.5.2       Headings. Do not insert a blank line between a heading and a source citation.

Example 9-6: Source Citation to a Heading

Source information at bottom of print page

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,transcript (
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,gettysburg ,a4ress 7#ahfc7
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,abraham ,l9coln1 ,draft (!
⠀⠀⠀⠀,gettysburg ,a4ress3 ,nicolay '''
,executive ,man.n1

9.5.3       Tables/Charts. The source citation is inserted on the next line after the completion of the table. Follow print if the source is after the bottom box line. Do not insert a blank line between the bottom box line and source information.

See Section 11, Tables and Related Columns for examples.

9.5.4       Copyright Information. Any associated copyright information appearing with an image is included in a new paragraph after the completion of the caption. Follow print for wording and sequence of information.

See Sample 9-7: Source Citation to an Image on page 9-17.

9.5.5       Permission to Copy. Permission notes frequently appear at the bottom of the print page, but may be found elsewhere on the page. The note is transcribed in 7-5 on the line after the title/heading.

See Sample 9-8: Copyright Information with Permission to Use on page 9-18.

9.6         Cross-References and Incidental Notes

Cross-reference: Cross-references direct the reader to another location in the same book.

Incidental note: An incidental note directs the reader to another source, e.g., an accompanying handbook, a website, etc.

9.6.1       These notes are formatted in the same way.

a.  A reference mark is not used.

b.  Font attributes are ignored, except when they are necessary for distinction.

c.  A blank line precedes and follows the note to avoid the impression that it is "attached" to the previous or following paragraphs.

d.  A blank line is not inserted between the heading and the note when the note includes a heading. The heading is in 7-7 followed on the next line by the note in 5-5.

e.  A note without a heading is in 7-5.

f.  The notes are inserted at the most appropriate location on the page.

Example 9-7: Cross-Reference

Marginal cross reference preceded by a heading


⠀⠀⠀⠀,publi%+ & ,pres5t+
⠀⠀..,publi% 9 a pr9t .m$ium4 ,submit yr
n>rative 6a s*ool newspap] or n,nal '''
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀$p ,sp1k+ ,3nec;n
⠀⠀⠀⠀,= 9/ruc;n ab n>rative pres5t,ns1
⠀⠀⠀⠀see ! _..,li/5+ & ,sp1k+ _.,"w%op on
⠀⠀⠀⠀page #abj4

Example 9-8: Incidental Note

Marginal incidental note

⠀⠀⠀⠀,le>n f ,biographies
,:y d y ?9k ,p]icles ?"\ x 0 s important
6b1utify & rebuild ,a!ns af ! de/ruc;n
caus$ 0w>8
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,= m 9=m,n1 g onl9e 6.,meet .! .,p
⠀⠀⠀⠀at _+www.sfsocialstudies.com_:4

9.7         Correspondence and Diary Entries

9.7.1       Correspondence and diary entries appearing within the flow of text, i.e., not boxed, or not on a separate page, are treated as displayed material.

a.  The format for dates and/or other letter components at the beginning of the letter is dependent on surrounding headings and texts. The transcriber needs to determine the best format in these situations, e.g., diary dates might be formatted in cell 1, or as a cell-5 or cell-7 heading, etc.

b.  Signatures and any accompanying closing appearing at a position beyond the left margin are moved to an attribution position, blocked in the fifth cell to the right of the beginning of the previous line.

c.  Use italics to indicate a script signature.

See Sample 9-9: Displayed Letter on page 9-19.

See Sample 9-10: Letters with Signatures as Attributions on page 9-20.

9.7.2       Instructional Correspondence. Letters intended to teach proper print format should be followed for spacing, indentions, and font attributes. This includes the spacing positions of headings, closings, the body of the letter, etc. Insert a blank line before and after the letter if it's not enclosed in a box. These types of letters are not considered displayed material and use the entire width of the braille line.

See Sample 9-11: Sample Letter for Instructional Purposes starting on page 9-22.

9.8         Samples

Sample 9-1: Displayed Quote, page 9-11

Sample 9-2: Italicized Displayed Verse, page 9-12

Sample 9-3: Displayed Word List in Columns, page 9-13

Sample 9-4: Displayed Vertical List, page 9-14

Sample 9-5: Epigraph, page 9-15

Sample 9-6: Attribution, page 9-16

Sample 9-7: Source Citation to an Image, page 9-17

Sample 9-8: Copyright Information with Permission to Use, page 9-18

Sample 9-9: Displayed Letter, page 9-19

Sample 9-10: Letters with Signatures as Attributions, page 9-20

Sample 9-11: Sample Letter for Instructional Purposes, page 9-22