Section 1
Basic Principles and General Formats

1.1     Fundamentals
1.2     Technical Materials
1.3     Partially Technical Works
1.4     Definitions, Format, and Terminology
1.5     Volume Size, Numbering, and Ending Indication
1.6     Page Size, Line Length, and Line Spacing
1.7     Titles and Running Heads
1.8     Paragraph Format
1.9     Word Division
1.10   Print Page Numbers
1.11   Material Printed Across Facing Pages
1.12   Letter/Number or Number/Number Combinations
1.13   Numeric and Alphabetic Print Page Numbers
1.14   Braille Page Numbers
1.15   Foreign Material in English Context
1.16   Volume Labels
1.17   Samples

1.1         Fundamentals

1.1.1       Braille Formats Principles of Print-to-Braille Transcription, 2011 (called guidelines in the following sections) provides a foundation for transcribing content in an accurate and consistent manner. This document is a set of guidelines which must be used to make structuring decisions. As print is evolving constantly, it is neither possible nor practical to provide directives for all potential transcription problems. Today's transcriber will encounter unique print conventions and is expected to use experience and judgment in adapting the best practices provided in these guidelines when encountering situations not covered here.

1.1.2       All decisions concerning the formation or placement of braille dots or symbols, including the letter indicator, conform to the most recent editions of English Braille American Edition and to the rules and usages set forth in these guidelines. Exceptions are noted in §1.2 and conform to those codes and any additional specialized braille rules or guidelines adopted by BANA following the adoption of this document.

1.1.3       Agencies may have specific requests for the format of print-to-braille material such as double spacing, use of contracted or uncontracted braille, interpoint or single-sided embossing, inclusion or exclusion of some materials, and special formatting requests such as interlining. These requests should be followed within the limits of these guidelines.

1.1.4       A transcriber does not edit text.

1.1.5       Not all text can be transcribed as printed, and the reader should be made aware of distinctions in format as necessary for understanding the text. If a particular format or font attribute cannot be represented in braille, the reader should be made aware of it through the use of a transcriber's note or another device.

1.1.6       Space saving is not the primary consideration. Clarity of presentation always supersedes concerns about space.

1.1.7       A transcriber examines the print before beginning a transcription in order to structure the text consistently.

1.1.8       Text is transcribed as printed, with the wording and sequence retained. This does not include the placement of marginal materials.

1.1.9       Expendable, or consumable, materials follow the same formatting guidelines as permanent materials. An agency may require some modifications, e.g., retaining space for the student's name and date, leaving extra blank lines for writing answers, etc.

1.1.10     A transcriber notifies the issuing agency when print cannot be transcribed. An example might be a book that is primarily pictures.

1.1.11     Print running headers and footers are ignored in braille. These often include the chapter or lesson title, the book title, etc.

Exception: A header with Name/Date is retained in expendable material.

1.1.12     A Braille Reader's Perspective

These guidelines are written so transcribers can produce the best possible braille for readers. In the past, BANA has issued rules that transcribers have been expected to follow even though many of them have never met a braille reader or seen braille read. We hope A Braille Reader's Perspective gives transcribers direction when interpreting the guidelines, especially in unusual situations.

1.2         Technical Materials

1.2.1       Transcriptions of technical material must be undertaken only by transcribers who are trained in the use of the appropriate braille codes and guidelines, including all updates.

1.2.2       Illustrations. Guidelines and Standards for Tactile Graphics, 2010 is used when creating tactile graphics.

1.2.3       Foreign Language. Foreign language texts must be transcribed according to Foreign Language Guidelines for Braille Transcription.

1.2.4       Computer Notation. The transcription of all computer notation, e.g., programming, arrays of computer commands, URLs, e-mail addresses, etc., must be done in accordance with the provisions of the Computer Braille Code, 2000 Revision.

a. Emoticons derived from print punctuation are transcribed using CBC.

Example 1-1: Emoticon

Emoticon :-&


b. An appropriate word is substituted for an emoticon symbol, e.g., "smiley face" for smiley face emoticon. This technique is explained on the Transcriber's Notes page.

1.2.5       Linguistics. The transcription of materials using specialized linguistics symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet must be done in accordance with the IPA Braille guidelines found at

1.2.6       Music Notation. The transcription of all music notation must be done in accordance with the provisions of the Music Braille Code, 1997.

1.2.7       Mathematics and Science. The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation, 1972 Revision, 2007-2011 Updates, is used when transcribing technical content, e.g., logic, mathematics, statistics, physics, etc., that appears throughout the book.

1.2.8       Chemistry. The transcription of chemistry texts must be done in accordance with the Braille Code for Chemical Notation, 1997.

1.2.9       Flowcharts. Computer Braille Code: Flowchart Design for Applicable Braille Codes Supplement, 1992 is used when transcribing flowcharts.

1.3         Partially Technical Works

1.3.1       Books with occasional mathematical or scientific terminology and notation are transcribed using literary braille as the primary code. Symbols are listed on the Special Symbols page or in a transcriber's note before the text. If one section contains extensive mathematical or scientific symbols, that section is transcribed using Nemeth Code. It is not necessary to list mathematical symbols on the Special Symbols page when the entire transcription is in Nemeth Code.

1.3.2       A symbol is described within the text only when there is no braille equivalent, when its use is the only occurrence in the text, or when it is not used in the ordinary manner, e.g., in poetry. An embedded transcriber's note of seven or fewer words may be inserted after the symbol to provide identification or a brief description.

Example 1-2: Brief Symbol Description

Sentence with an image of an hourglass instead of the word

,! $hg ,'h\rglass,' repres5ts pass+

1.3.3       Notation is transcribed in Nemeth Code when knowledge of the symbols representing mathematical and nonalphabetical signs appearing in technical notation is required by the reader, e.g., understanding and use of notation, performing computations, expressing technical facts, etc.

1.3.4       Use the Nemeth Code beginning and ending symbols for short examples of math or chemistry notation in nontechnical materials. On the recommendation of the BANA Mathematics Braille Technical Committee the symbols are preceded and followed by a space.

_% Begin Nemeth Code
_: End Nemeth Code

The beginning and end indicators must appear on the same line as associated text. When a mathematical expression will not fit on one line with the indicators, it is to be divided between lines according to the rules of the Nemeth Code. The closing indicator is placed after punctuation that appears at the end of the enclosed expression.

Example 1-3: Equation in Literary Context

Equation of E equals m c squared as part of a sentence

,rememb] ,e9/e9's equ,n1

_% ,e .k mc^2, _: =! te/4

1.3.5       Text containing technical notation throughout the transcription requires notice of this usage on the Transcriber's Notes page. Samples:

Chemical notation is transcribed according to the Braille Code for Chemical Notation, 1997.

Mathematical formulas are transcribed according to The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation, 1972 Revision, 2007-2011 Updates.

a. Use of these codes, even in nontechnical materials, requires knowledge and understanding of the code. It is the transcriber's responsibility to seek assistance from a code specialist to ensure an accurate transcription of the technical content.

b. See Section 2, Transcriber-Generated Pages and Front Matter, §2.6, Transcriber's Notes Page for detailed information about the Transcriber's Notes page.

1.4         Definitions, Format, and Terminology

1.4.1       These guidelines contain definitions that identify print materials for which specific braille formats are provided. Regardless of print terminology, material in the braille edition is identified and transcribed according to the appropriate guideline definition. For example, columnar materials may be referred to as lists, columns, tables, or even figures in print. In braille, the material is identified first as fitting one of the specific definitions given for columned material, lists, or tables and then transcribed accordingly.

1.4.2       Blocked refers to text alignment in which all lines begin at the same left margin.

1.4.3       Formatting patterns of indentation and runover are shown as two numbers separated by a hyphen. The first number is the paragraph indent, and the second number is the runover, e.g., lists are in 1-3 and indented paragraphs are in 3-1.

1.4.4       A nested list, a list within a list, has main entries and at least one level of subentries.

The main entry begins in cell 1. Each subentry level begins two cells to the right of the previous level. All runovers begin two cells to the right of the farthest indented subentry.

Two levels: 1-5, 3-5
Three levels: 1-7, 3-7, 5-7
Four levels: 1-9, 3-9, 5-9, 7-9

1.4.5       Displayed material refers to text set off by blank lines and/or a different margin.

Example 1-4: Displayed Material (Print)

... the story begins with a line from poetry / blank line / (different margin) The fields are awash in a sea of blue. / blank line / The “sea of blue” refers to the wildflowers growing in abundance ...

1.4.6       Embedded material refers to text inserted within a paragraph.

Example 1-5: Embedded Material (Print)

Poetic line within text is italicized, which is enclosed in brackets here: ... the story begins with a line from poetry. [The fields are awash in a sea of blue.] The “sea of blue” refers to the wildflowers growing in abundance ...

1.5         Volume Size, Numbering, and Ending Indication

1.5.1       Volume Size. An agency may specify maximum braille volume size for the transcriptions that it sponsors. The decision may be based on the reading level, especially for lower grades. Volume size is dependent also on output as either single-side or interpoint.

a. A braille volume is ended with a logical break in content, e.g., at the end of a unit, part, chapter, or section.

b. Adherence to this principle is more important than maintaining uniform volume size throughout the braille edition.

1.5.2       Volume Numbering. Volumes are given consecutive arabic numbers that are to be:

a. Placed on all title pages.

b. Indicated in the table of contents for the first volume.

c. Placed on the cover label. See §1.16.

1.5.3       End of Volume. Indicate the end of each volume on the last page.

a. Each volume includes a centered and numbered volume statement, END OF VOLUME #__.

b. The final volume includes a centered end of book statement, THE END.

c. A blank line precedes the end of volume statement when possible.

Example 1-6: End of Volume Statement within Braille Page


d.  When text ends on the next to last line of a page, the end of volume statement may be placed on the last line.

Example 1-7: End of Volume Statement on Line 25

22 #f4.,mak+.9f];es,:ydsci5ti/s2lieve
23 ⠀⠀tmito*ondriamayhbe59vad]s(e>ly
24 ⠀⠀cells8
25 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,5d,,(,,volume#c       #--

e.  When the text ends on the last line of a page, the end of volume statement may be included on the line if it is preceded and followed by three blank cells.

Example 1-8: End of Volume Statement Added to Line 25

23 #f4 .,mak+ .9f];es ,:y⠀d sci5ti/s 2lieve
24 ⠀⠀t mito*ondria may h be5 9vad]s ( e>ly
25 ⠀⠀cells8⠀⠀⠀,,5d ,,( ,,volume #c⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#--

f.  When there is not sufficient room for the text and end of volume statement at the end of the page, one line of text is carried over to the next page.

g.  The end of volume statement is transcribed on the last page, regardless of format (such as glossaries).

Example 1-9: End of Volume Statement in Glossary

20 zygote3 f]tiliz$ egg
21 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
22 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,! ,,5d
23 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
24 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
25 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀vitam9--zygote⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#--

h.  The end of volume statement follows print indications of the end of a play, when a phrase such as "Curtain Falling" occurs as the last text in the volume.

1.6         Page Size, Line Length, and Line Spacing

1.6.1       An agency may specify the page size and line length to be used in transcriptions that it sponsors.

a.  Materials are embossed on 11½" × 11" braille paper with 25 lines, with a maximum of 40 cells per line.

b.  Single line spacing is used.

c.  An agency may use smaller paper or request double-spacing.

1.6.2       Double-spacing is often requested when a reader is learning braille, as it supports tracking skills.

a.  Use two blank lines wherever there is normally one blank line.

b.  A blank line is inserted before and after a page change indicator.


c.  Title pages and supplementary title pages are single-spaced.

d.  Puzzles, such as crosswords and word searches, are single-spaced.

e.  Tables are single-spaced.

f.  Spatial equations are single-spaced.

g.  Do not insert any blank lines after a top box line.

h.  Do not insert any blank lines before a bottom box line.

i.   Do not insert any blank lines between column headings and the separation line.

1.6.3       If print interlining is requested, the print must appear word-for-word above the braille.

1.7         Titles and Running Heads

1.7.1       Titles. The complete book title, including a grade level (if indicated in print), series title, subtitle, and edition name or number, appears on the first line(s) of the first page of text in each braille volume.

a.  Center the title on line 1, and other lines as necessary.

b.  Follow print for capitalization.

c.  Leave a minimum of three blank cells before the start of the title.

d.  Leave a minimum of three blank cells between the end of the title and the print page number.

e.  Insert a blank line following the title information.

1.7.2       Running Heads. If a braille running head is used, it appears on the first line of every page, except the title page and the first page of text in each volume where the full title is indicated.

The running head is centered on the available cells of the first line, i.e., leaving at least three blank cells at both the beginning of the line and before the print page number.

a.  A blank line is not inserted after a running head unless it is required by other formats, e.g., headings, lists, etc.

b.  The running head is limited to one braille line, and the same wording and capitalization is used on all pages.

c.  The running head is formed from the title on the print title page.

d.  Follow print for the capitalization.

e.  If the fully capped title is too long to use as the running head, either capitalize the initial letter of the first word and/or principal words in the title, or choose key words from the title.

Example 1-10: Running Head

Print title, showing title case capitalization

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,explor+ ,psy*ology         #c

1.8         Paragraph Format

1.8.1       Use normal capitalization at the beginning of a paragraph except when uppercase is used for distinction.

Example 1-11: Uppercase Not Used at Beginning of Paragraph

Paragraph beginning with five words which are uppercase

,! old woman foll[$ !m home f ! groc]y

Example 1-12: Uppercase Used at Beginning of Paragraph

STOP in all uppercase letters at the beginning of a paragraph

⠀⠀8,,/op6 ,t isn't yr bike60

1.8.2       Indented paragraphs are in 3-1.

1.8.3       Blocked paragraphs are in 1-1. A blank line precedes each blocked paragraph, unless it follows a cell-5 or cell-7 heading.

Exception: Use indented paragraphs when an entire text is printed in blocked paragraphs. This change is noted on the Transcriber's Notes page.

1.8.4       Numbered or lettered paragraphs that do not indicate a list are indented or blocked as they are in print. In a numbered paragraph the numbers are present typically for discussion. In a list the numbers are present for itemizing.

1.9         Word Division

1.9.1       Words other than hyphenated compound words are not divided at the end of a line except for purposes of instruction (e.g., in grammars or spellers), or in line-numbered prose or poetry.

a.  Follow print for syllabification when words are divided for purposes of instruction.

b.  Words divided at the end of a print page are transcribed in their entirety before the page change indicator.

1.10        Print Page Numbers

1.10.1     All print page numbers, including front matter pages, are included in braille. The print page number is located at the end of line 1.

Exception: Pages of text at the end of the book that are not included in the braille volume do not have to be accounted for, e.g., photo credits.

1.10.2     When a new print page begins at the top of a braille page, the print is placed to end at the right margin on the first line with three or more blank cells left between the end of the text, or running head, and the page number.

1.10.3     When a new print page begins in the middle of a braille page, the print page number is preceded by the page change indicator. The indicator, a line of unspaced - (36), is on the same braille line as the page number, starting at the left margin and ending with the new page number at the right margin. There is no space between the page change indicator and the first symbol of the print page number.

Example 1-13: Page Change Indicator Mid-Braille Page


3t9ues on ! l9e af ! 9dicator4

a.  The presence of the print page change indicator does not affect the use of blank lines.

b.  Insert a blank line before the page change indicator when the text ending the print page would normally be followed by a blank line.

c.  Use only one blank line following the page change indicator when a format requires a blank line before and after a page change indicator.

Example 1-14: Blank Line After Page Change Indicator

A list ends a print page and directions are at the top of the next print page

⠀⠀⠀⠀,*oose ! lr (! answ] t be/ -pletes
⠀⠀⠀⠀ea* /ate;t4
#a4 ,: ( ^! is a bird ( prey8
⠀⠀a4 eagle
⠀⠀b4 '''

See Sample 1-1: List at End of Print Page on page 1-23.

d.  Insert a blank line after the page change indicator when the new print page starts with a format that normally is preceded by a blank line.

See Sample 1-2: Heading at Beginning of Print Page on page 1-24.

1.10.4     Begin the new print page on the next braille page when there is not enough room for the page indicator and one line of text (other than a heading). Page change indicators may appear on line 2 following a line of text, or on line 3 after a running head and one line of text.

1.10.5     Implied Page Numbers. For a number of reasons, a page may not show a page number, yet it is implied. In braille, the print page number is inserted whether or not it appears in print.

a.  An image may cover the area where the page number normally appears, and the page number isn't shown. The page number is implied.

b.  Page numbers do not always appear on the first pages in the front matter. The page numbers are implied when the print page numbers start with something other than i or 1.

1.10.6     No Print Page Numbers. Some books have text pages without numbers. For example, a section of photographs with captions, and without page numbers, may be inserted between two consecutive page numbers. Sections at the end of the book also may be unnumbered.

a.  Insert a row of unspaced - (36) across the width of the line to indicate print page changes.

b.  Braille page numbering is continued on these pages.

1.10.7     Lettered Continuation Pages. Material on a print page typically continues on one or more braille pages.

a.  The same print page number is placed to end at the right margin on line 1 of each of these pages.

b.  The page number is preceded by an unspaced a for the first continued page, b for the second, etc. These letters are transcribed without the letter indicator, and the usual three blank cells are left between the end of the text or running head and the lettered page number.

Example 1-15: Lettered Continuation Pages (Print)

Four pages showing the progression of print page numbers (45, a45, b45), with the page change indicator before 46 on the third page, and the forth page is a46

c.  Use double letters, aa, bb, etc., when the continuation page number goes beyond z.

1.10.8     Combined Print Page Numbers. When the first page of text does not begin with a page numbered as i, I, or 1, or has some other logical sequence of numbers, a combined print page number is inserted to account for the preceding pages. Do not combine different types of numbering systems, e.g., Roman and arabic numerals.

a.  The initial roman or arabic number is combined with the number of the page on which the text section actually begins, e.g., i-v, I-V, or 1-5, and this combined page number is placed at the right margin. If lettered continuation pages are required, they carry only the number of the page on which the text section actually occurs, e.g., av, aV, or a5.

b.  When one or more pages contain only headings, such as the book title, part, unit, or chapter, combine the headings with the following text on a single braille page.

c.  Full pages of material omitted from the braille edition are included in a combined page number, e.g., 25-29.

See Sample 1-3: Combined Print Page Numbers on page 1-25.

1.11      Material Printed Across Facing Pages

1.11.1     Material printed and read across two facing pages of a book, when there is no other material on either page, is treated as if it is on a single print page. The combined print page numbers, e.g., 44-45, are placed to end at the right margin. If lettered continuation pages are required, they also carry the combined print page numbers, e.g., a44-45, b44-45, and so forth.

See Sample 1-4: Material Across Facing Print Pages on page 1-26.

1.12       Letter/Number or Number/Number Combinations

1.12.1     Such pagination is used widely for sections of a classroom text or to identify portions of exercise and laboratory manuals. A speller section may be numbered as S1-S7; pages IV1-IV5 may identify drills to be used with Chapter IV; or pages in Chapter 6 may be numbered 6-1, 6-2.

a.  Numbers that identify consecutive pages of text end at the right margin.

b.  Follow print for the sequence of the page numbers, using the continuation letter as needed.

c.  Omit the print hyphen.

d.  Omit the letter indicator when a capital letter follows a number.

Example 1-16: Letter and Number Page Numbers


Combined Page Numbers

Combined/Continued Numbers

























e.  Words preceding page numbers are changed to an appropriate uppercase letter, e.g., change Reference 1 to R1. This change is noted on the Transcriber's Notes page.

Example 1-17: Word and Number Page Numbers


Combination/Continued Page Numbers

Reference 1



Reference a1



Reference 1-6



Reference a1-6



f.  When the page numbers are referenced within the book, such as the table of contents and index, the same method applies.

g.  Option: The letter may be omitted when all the pages within the book have the same letter preceding the number. This change is noted on the Transcriber's Notes page. Sample:

All pages in the text begin with the letter R, which has been omitted.

1.13       Numeric and Alphabetic Print Page Numbers

1.13.1     Some books include spelled out (alphabetic) print page numbers in addition to the numeric numbers. This practice is often seen in math, foreign language, and lower grade books. As this technique is a learning strategy, it is important to include both numeric and alphabetic numbers in braille.

a.  Follow print for the use of hyphens within the alphabetic number.

b.  The numeric and alphabetic numbers must appear on the same braille page.

c.  The alphabetic page number is placed on line 1 if there is no running head and on line 2 if there is a running head. The alphabetic page number is preceded by six cells of the page change indicator symbol ------ (36, 36, 36, 36, 36, 36). Runovers are in cell 7.

d.  Do not include the alphabetic page numbers on continuation pages.

e.  No other text can appear on the line with the alphabetic page number.

f.  Include both alphabetic page numbers when combined page numbers are used, e.g., 8-9 and eight-nine.

Example 1-18: Page Number without Running Head

------ei<ty-n9e                      #hi
text '''

Example 1-19: Page Number with Running Head or Short Title

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,runn+ ,h1d            #hi

⠀⠀,text '''

Example 1-20: Page Number with Page Change Indictor

11 text

12 -------------------------------------#hi

13 ------ei<ty-n9e

14 text

g. A blank line is not inserted between the alphabetic page number and the full title on the first page of text.

Example 1-21: Long Page Number with Title on First Page

------"o-?\s& ?ree-hundr$          #acge

1.14       Braille Page Numbers

1.14.1     All pages, including transcriber-generated and front matter pages, must have a braille page number. Exception: See §1.14.1f below.

a.  Braille page numbers always are placed at the right margin on the last line of the braille page.

b.  Transcriber-generated braille page numbers are preceded by t. See Section 2, Transcriber-Generated Pages and Front Matter, §2.2, Transcriber-Generated Page Basics.

c.  Print front matter braille page numbers are preceded by p. See Section 2, Transcriber-Generated Pages and Front Matter, §2.7, Front Matter Basics.

d.  Begin the main text of each volume with braille page 1.

e.  Braille page numbers are shown on all pages in single-side braille.

f.  Some agencies suppress the even braille page number in interpoint braille.

g.  At least three blank cells precede the braille page number.

1.14.2     Repeated or Omitted Braille Page Numbers. These provisions are applied to only a single repetition or omission. When an extensive number of pages is involved, a notice of the discrepancy in braille page numbers is explained on the Transcriber's Notes page.

a.  Insert the unspaced repetition symbol ; (56) before the repeated braille page number.

b.  Insert the unspaced omission symbol " (5) before the page number that follows the omitted number.

c.  These symbols immediately precede the letter p in front matter braille page numbers.

d.  These symbols are listed on the Special Symbols page.

1.15       Foreign Material in English Context

1.15.1     The provisions given in these guidelines apply to the transcription of foreign words and phrases appearing in English educational or instructional materials other than those texts teaching a foreign language.

1.15.2     Foreign Material. For the purposes of agencies and transcribers working with codes of the Braille Authority of North America, any language other than modern English is considered a foreign language. This includes Old English and Middle English, as well as transliterated or Romanized forms of languages such as Arabic, Chinese, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, and Russian.

1.15.3     Foreign language words or phrases within an English language paragraph are contracted as though they are English. Use the dot 4 accent indicator for accented letters.

Example 1-22: Contracted Foreign Word in English Context

English sentence, with trineo italicized

,! ^w = sl$ is .tr9eo4

A contraction is not used when an accented letter is part of a contraction.

Example 1-23: Contraction Not Used with Accented Letter

English sentence, with leñera (a tilde is over the n)

,! ^w = wood%$ 9 ,spani% is le@n]a4

1.15.4     Foreign Language Guidelines for Braille Transcription apply when a complete section, story, poem, etc. is in a foreign language. This portion of text is uncontracted, and the appropriate foreign accented letters and punctuation marks are used. See Appendix D, Foreign Language Symbols for French, Italian, German, and Spanish accent letter symbols. See Foreign Language Guidelines for Braille Transcription for a complete list of foreign language symbols.

a.  All punctuation and accented letters are listed on the Special Symbols page, or in a transcriber's note before the text.

b.  When the language is unidentified, do not contract. Use dot 4 for all accent indicators.

1.15.5     Punctuation in a position not normally seen in English context, e.g., the Spanish inverted question mark and exclamation point, etc., at the beginning of the sentence, requires the use of the foreign language punctuation indicator.

a.  Insert ; (56), before the unusual punctuation in English context.

b.  The foreign language punctuation indicator is listed on the Special Symbols page, or included in a transcriber's note before the text.

Example 1-24: Foreign Language Punctuation Indicator

Sentence with an inverted exclamation point before Hola

,john sd1 8;6,hola ,s>ah6 ,meet me at !

Example 1-25: Foreign Language Punctuation Indicator

Sentence with an inverted question mark before Que

;5,que pasa1 ,s>ah;5 ,y look sad4

c.  Font attribute indicators precede the opening punctuation, but follow an opening dash or opening quote.

Example 1-26: Italic Indicator Before Exclamation Point

Italicized sentence beginning with an opening quotation mark and inverted exclamation point

8..;6,hola ,s>ah6 ,my "n is .,john40

1.15.6     Greek, Hebrew, and Russian are the only languages using non-Latin alphabets for which an official BANA code provides braille symbols.

See Foreign Language Guidelines for Braille Transcription for the appropriate foreign alphabet symbols. These symbols, as well as those provided below, are listed on the Special Symbols page, or in a transcriber's note before the text.

1.15.7     Greek Letters. A single Greek letter or letter combination is preceded by the Greek letter indicator 1 (2). Follow print for capitalization, but ignore font attributes and do not use the letter indicator before these letters.

Example 1-27: Single Greek Letter

Italicized Sigma letter


Example 1-28: Greek Letter Combination

Phi Greek letter, followed by BK


1.15.8     Non-Latin Words and Passages

a.  Use the non-Latin passage indicator ; (56) before each word when no more than three non-Latin words are written together.

b.  A double passage indicator ;; (56, 56) precedes the first word and a single indicator precedes the last word for passages of more than three non-Latin words.

c.  Retain font attributes. The appropriate indicator precedes the passage indicator.

Example 1-29: Use of Double Passage Indicator

Greek passage of four words

;;,pounto pounto to ;daktulidi

1.16       Volume Labels

1.16.1     Labels are applied vertically to volume covers. The label content is an agency decision, but typically includes:

a.  Title

b.  Volume number following the letter V, with no period or blank space between the number and the V

c.  Inclusive print pages

1.16.2     Add inclusive letters for dictionaries and other multi-volume alphabetical reference books

1.16.3     Most labels are limited to 30 cells and 2-4 lines

Example 1-30: Volume Label

Sample volume label of two lines

,! ,sev5 ,wond]s (! ,_w
,v#e3 #aje-ade

1.17       Samples

Sample 1-1: List at End of Print Page, page 1-23

Sample 1-2: Heading at Beginning of Print Page, page 1-24

Sample 1-3: Combined Print Page Numbers, page 1-25

Sample 1-4: Material Across Facing Print Pages, page 1-26