17.2 Spelling Word Lists
17.3 Word Lists Used with Activities
17.4 Word Lists with Partial Emphasis
17.5 Marked Words in a List
17.6 Definition Lists
17.7 Syllabified Words
17.8 Blanks and Omissions
17.9 Intentional Errors
17.10 Crossed-Out Letters
17.12 Nonalphabetical Signs
17.1.1 Spelling texts include a variety of teaching methods, e.g., emphasis of certain letters, omission of letters, scrambled letters, deliberate misspellings, etc., to reinforce the proper spelling of a word. This section applies only to these types of situations, in which the spelling or the formation of the word is the most important consideration.
17.1.2 Special Symbols and Transcriber's Notes
17.1.3 A Braille Reader's Perspective
Uncontracted braille is a key element that aids the reader in using spellers. Care must be taken to ensure the appropriate use of uncontracted vs. contracted braille.
17.2.1 Word lists, appearing typically at the beginning of chapters or lessons, may be intended to teach how each word is spelled. These are called spelling word lists. Another kind of word list, called a vocabulary word list, may be included for the purpose of teaching their meanings. These are treated as simple lists in braille. See Section 8, Lists.
17.2.2 One of the difficulties in working with spelling word lists is determining if the words, or even just sets of letter combinations, should be contracted. A spelling list appears typically at the beginning of a chapter or lesson, identifying the words to be studied. It may be a simple list of words, or may be focused on a specific set of letter combinations. As the first word list in the lesson, it is considered the "spelling word list."
a. Font attributes used for entire spelling word lists are ignored.
b. Spelling words are listed vertically in 1-3.
c. The first writing of the spelling word or phrase is contracted.
d. Then words and phrases with contractions are repeated in uncontracted braille.
e. Each contracted word is separated from its respelling by one blank space. When the spelling word is a phrase, the uncontracted respelling is preceded by two blank spaces.
f. A list of spelling words may appear again in the lesson, either as a partial or complete list, often as a boxed sidebar. Such word lists are repeated as they are in print and the words are transcribed as a contracted list.
g. Longer word lists, showing only the contracted form, may be changed to columns. This is not recommended for early grade material.
See Sample 17-1: Spelling List on page 17-13.
17.3.1 Spelling books are full of activities to support learning. The activity heading and/or directions are used to help determine if the word list needs to be contracted or uncontracted.
17.3.2 Uncontracted Activity Word Lists. The following words/phrases are typical terminology indicating the word list should be uncontracted.
Look it up in the dictionary
Start with the same letter
Write the base word
Word search puzzle
See Sample 17-2: Activity Word List for Alphabetizing on page 17-14.
See Sample 17-3: Pronunciation Words in a List on page 17-15.
See Sample 17-4: Scrambled Words on page 17-16.
17.3.3 Contracted Activity Word Lists. Word lists with activities centered around the use of the words usually are contracted. Sample key phrases indicating the word list should be contracted include:
Write a word that means the same.
Write the missing word.
Write the word that belongs.
Write the word that rhymes.
See Sample 17-5: Activity Word List on page 17-17.
17.4.1 Word lists may focus on certain aspects of spelling by use of partial emphasis.
a. Use italics for all forms of emphasis.
b. Each word is contracted, uncontracted, and uncontracted with partial emphasis.
c. The termination indicator ,' (6, 3) is inserted to indicate the end of the italics in a partially-emphasized word.
d. One space separates each spelling of single words. Two spaces separate each spelling of phrases.
e. All words are listed vertically in 1-3.
See Sample 17-6: Word List with Partial Emphasis on page 17-18.
17.5.1 Use the primary bullet _4 when only some of the items in a list are marked.
a. The bullet begins in cell 1 and is followed by a space.
b. Align the beginning character of all items in cell 4. Runovers are in cell 6.
c. Use the secondary bullet _9 when more than one symbol is used.
d. Multi-column lists with marked items are transcribed vertically.
e. All bullet indicators are listed on the Special Symbols page, or in a transcriber's note before the text.
See Sample 17-7: Word List with Two Different Print Symbols on page 17-19.
17.6.1 Entry words are contracted only, and are not repeated in uncontracted form.
a. Ignore entry word font attributes, except when distinction is required, e.g., foreign words.
b. One space separates each word from its definition when listed words are followed by punctuation, or if the definition starts with an uppercase letter.
c. Two spaces separate each word from its definition when listed words are phrases instead of individual words, are not followed by punctuation, or the definition begins with a lowercase letter.
See Sample 17-8: Definition List with Two Spaces after Entry Word on page 17-20.
See Sample 17-9: Word Usage List on page 17-21.
17.7.1 Syllabified single and compound words are uncontracted.
a. Do not divide syllabified words between lines, unless they are too long to fit on a single line. If a word is divided between lines, it must be at a syllable break.
See Sample 17-10: Syllabified Words with Hyphens on page 17-22.
b. Do not contract to, into, or by before syllabified words.
c. Hyphens replace all spaces or print symbols used to indicate syllable breaks.
d. Add a transcriber's note to explain the use of hyphens for a space or other print symbol. Sample:
A hyphen (36) replaces the blank space used to show syllable division.
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,',a hyph5 7#cf7 replaces ! blank
17.8.1 Dashes Indicating Omitted Parts of Words. When text refers to spelling or pronunciation:
a. Do not contract to, into, or by before word parts.
b. Use an omission (double) dash, unspaced from the letters of the word, to represent a print dash or blank space.
c. Do not contract the portions of the word attached to the omission dash.
d. Do not use letter indicators with individual letters or letter combinations in uncontracted partial words.
,! tunnels 9 ,bo/on >e v perplex----4
17.8.2 Omitted Letters. Do not contract words showing omitted letters.
a. Substitute an equivalent number of unspaced dot 3s when symbols indicate a specific number of missing letters. The dot 3s are used because they are easier to count. A transcriber's note explains the use of the dot 3s. Sample:
Each asterisk is replaced with a dot 3.
b. Follow print when hyphens indicate a specific number of missing letters.
c. Use an equivalent number of unspaced hyphens when directions or other text specifies the number of missing letters.
See Sample 17-11: Omitted Letters Identified in Directions on page 17-23.
17.9.1 It's important to avoid providing answer choices or solutions when intentional errors appear in the exercise.
17.9.2 Unmarked Errors. Entire passages with unmarked intentional spelling errors to be identified and/or corrected by the reader are uncontracted.
When other aspects of language skills, e.g., grammar or punctuation, are being tested along with spelling, treat it as a general proofreading exercise and do not contract the passage.
today ,i wint shopping for new shoes8
See Sample 17-12: Unmarked Intentional Spelling Errors on page 17-24.
17.9.3 Marked Spelling Errors. When print calls attention to errors by means of a font attribute, e.g., underline, italics, color, highlighting, etc., the designated words are uncontracted, and the remainder of the passage is contracted.
See Sample 17-13: Marked Intentional Spelling Errors on page 17-25.
See Sample 17-14: Errors to be Identified in Exercise on page 17-26.
17.10.1 When listed or displayed words are shown with crossed-out letters:
a. Words with crossed-out letters are uncontracted.
b. Show the word as spelled, without indicating the crossed-out letters.
c. Then repeat the word, and substitute a hyphen - (36) for each crossed-out letter.
d. Explain the use of the hyphen in a transcriber's note. Sample:
Words with crossed-out letters are uncontracted, then repeated with a hyphen substituted for each crossed-out letter.
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,',^ws ) cross$-\ lrs >e
17.10.2 When words are shown with crossed-out letters within sentences:
a. Follow points §17.10.1a.-c. above.
b. Enclose the repeated word in an embedded transcriber's note to distinguish it from surrounding text.
c. Explain this usage in a transcriber's note. Sample:
Words with crossed-out letters are uncontracted then repeated with a hyphen (36) substituted for each crossed-out letter. The repeated word is preceded and followed by (6, 3).
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,',^ws ) cross$-\ lrs >e
17.11.1 Inserted Letters. Spellers often indicate replacement letters within a word to show other spellings.
a. Words with inserted letters are uncontracted.
b. Follow print for use of enclosure symbols.
c. Spaced words to be combined with insertions are uncontracted.
d. Words that are to be combined with other words or word parts are uncontracted.
e. Follow print for the spacing of the text to be inserted.
⠀⠀⠀⠀,write li/ ^ws 0a4+ ! 5d+ 9 p>5!ses
17.11.2 Text may show crossed-out letters, words, or passages, along with substitutions in enclosure symbols.
a. Follow the guidelines in §17.10 for transcribing crossed-out letters.
b. Follow print for use and spacing of enclosure symbols.
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,',^ws ) cross$-\ lrs >e
17.12.1 Mathematical Symbols. Spellers often use mathematical symbols to teach word formation.
a. All text in word formation "equations" are uncontracted.
b. Words with partial emphasis are repeated, contracted, following the word showing emphasis.
c. Use the following spaced symbols when mathematical indicators are used in discussions of word formation. The symbols are listed on the Special Symbols page. Keep in mind that all partial-word emphasis that is not in uppercase letters in print is in italics in braille.
@+ + Plus
@- – Minus
.k = Equals
See Sample 17-15: Word Equation Using Mathematical Symbols on page 17-27.
See Sample 17-16: Crossed-out Letters and Equals Sign on page 17-28.
⠀⠀⠀⠀,su6ixes ) ,3sonants
See Sample 17-17: Word Formation Using Mathematical Symbols on page 17-29.
17.12.2 Arrows. Use spaced arrow symbols when print arrows show progression in word formation. All arrow symbols are listed on the Special Symbols page, or in a transcriber's note before the text.
$33o ® Right arrow
$[33 ¬ Left arrow
$[33o « Left-right arrow
See Sample 17-18: Word Formation Using Arrows on page 17-30.
Sample 17-1: Spelling List, page 17-13
Sample 17-2: Activity Word List for Alphabetizing, page 17-14
Sample 17-3: Pronunciation Words in a List, page 17-15
Sample 17-4: Scrambled Words, page 17-16
Sample 17-5: Activity Word List, page 17-17
Sample 17-6: Word List with Partial Emphasis, page 17-18
Sample 17-7: Word List with Two Different Print Symbols, page 17-19
Sample 17-8: Definition List with Two Spaces after Entry Word, page 17-20
Sample 17-9: Word Usage List, page 17-21
Sample 17-10: Syllabified Words with Hyphens, page 17-22
Sample 17-11: Omitted Letters Identified in Directions, page 17-23
Sample 17-12: Unmarked Intentional Spelling Errors, page 17-24
Sample 17-13: Marked Intentional Spelling Errors, page 17-25
Sample 17-14: Errors to be Identified in Exercise, page 17-26
Sample 17-15: Word Equation Using Mathematical Symbols, page 17-27
Sample 17-16: Crossed-out Letters and Equals Sign, page 17-28
Sample 17-17: Word Formation Using Mathematical Symbols, page 17-29
Sample 17-18: Word Formation Using Arrows, page 17-30